The Iterative Wave Function Reconstruction (IWFR) method uses a set of image intensities measured in different planes (a through-focal series), and reconstructs the complex wave at the specimen exit surface (at the zero-defocus plane).

This method requires few images, as few as five will suffice, in contrast to other methods, such as the MAL method (TrueImage by FEI), that requires usually twenty images.

Using the reconstructed wave function you can correct optical aberrations, e.g. spherical aberration. Therefore, the IWFR is a software Cs-corrector.



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