Quantitative Differential Phase Contrast (qDPC)
with 4D STEM and Segmented Detector modules
The qDPC integrates DPC (Differential Phase Contrast) signals to obtain a phase contrast image. The qDPC gives a boundary-artifact-free solution using DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) contrary to the solution given by FFT (Fast Fourier transform). The qDPC has also a real-time integration capability that is ideal for the segmented detector (Optional Segmented Detector module).
4D STEM module for qDPC
The 4D STEM module creates more quantitative DPC signals at each 2D diffraction pattern than those from the segment detector. Then, the calculated DPC signals can be processed by qDPC to give a quantitative phase distribution. There are two modules for Gatan STEMx and JEOL 4DCanvas, respectively.
Segment Detector (SD) module
References and Technical Notes
The SD module captures the signals from the segmented detector using Gatanís DigiScan II, and calculates a phase distribution in real time. Therefore, you can see the phase image and other STEM image(s), such as HAADF image, with the progress of the scan using the SD module.
Examples (Sample Data)
Ishizuka A, Oka M, Seki T, Shibata N and Ishizuka K: Numerical Procedures to determine Potential Distribution from Electronic Field Vectors observed in Differential Phase Contrast (DPC) imaging, M&M 2017.
Ishizuka A, Oka M, Seki T, Shibata N and Ishizuka K: Boundary-artifact-free determination of potential distribution from differential phase contrast signals, Microscopy 66, 397 (2017).
Shibata N, Findlay SD, Kohno Y, Sawada H, Kondo Y & Ikuhara Y: Differential phase-contrast microscopy at atomic resolution, Nature Physics 8, 611 (2012).
Matsumoto T, So YG, Kohno Y, Sawada H, Ikuhara Y, Shibata N: Direct observation of S7 domain boundary core structure in magnetic skyrmion lattice, Sci. Adv. 2:e1501280 (2016)
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