Quantitative Differential Phase Contrast (qDPC) and 4D STEM module
qDPC integrates DPC (Differential Phase Contrast) signals to obtain a phase contrast image. DPC is ideal for Cs-corrected microscope, since a phase contrast image is obtained with zero objective-lens aberrations that conform to other STEM signals, such as HAADF image. qDPC gives a boundary-artifact-free solution contrary to the solution given by FFT (Fast Fourier transform).
4D STEM module for qDPC
References and Technical Notes
4D STEM module creates more quantitative DPC signals at each 2D diffraction pattern than those from the segment detector. Then, the calculated DPC signals can be processed by qDPC to give a quantitative phase distribution.
Examples (Sample Data)
Ishizuka A, Oka M, Seki T, Shibata N and Ishizuka K: Numerical Procedures to determine Potential Distribution from Electronic Field Vectors observed in Differential Phase Contrast (DPC) imaging, M&M 2017.
Ishizuka A, Oka M, Seki T, Shibata N and Ishizuka K: Boundary-artifact-free determination of potential distribution from differential phase contrast signals, Microscopy 66, 397 (2017).
Shibata N, Findlay SD, Kohno Y, Sawada H, Kondo Y & Ikuhara Y: Differential phase-contrast microscopy at atomic resolution, Nature Physics 8, 611 (2012).
Matsumoto T, So YG, Kohno Y, Sawada H, Ikuhara Y, Shibata N: Direct observation of S7 domain boundary core structure in magnetic skyrmion lattice, Sci. Adv. 2:e1501280 (2016)
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